Renewable energy sources, with emphasis to hydroelectric energy. Electric energy demand (components, temporal distribution). Hydropower technology – preliminary design. Large hydroelectric works: general layout, technical quantities, environmental issues, reservoir operation, simulation and optimization. Small hydropower works: technology, design, environmental issues. Solar and wind energy: estimation of solar/wind potential, system design, allocation, legislation. Hybrid systems – pumped-storage. Energy economics. Water and energy.
|1||Energy, electric energy and renewable energy||Historical background. Basic concepts of energy technology. Forms of energy. Electric energy. Energy mix. Electrical systems. Renewable energy sources. Hydroelectric energy.||3|
|2||Energy supply and demand||Electric energy balance. Energy demand and its components (domestic, industrial, municipal, agricultural). Temporal distribution of energy consumption. Forms of energy production (base energy, peak energy, secondary energy).||3|
|3||Principles of hydropower technology||Fundamental quantities (energy, power, hydraulic head, efficiency). Estimation of hydraulic losses. Turbine types. Characteristic turbine curves. Preliminary design of hydropower systems.||3|
|4||General layout of hydroelectric works||Dams and associated works (intakes, penstocks, power stations, draft tubes, spillways, gates). Environmental impacts. Examples.||3|
|5||Hydroelectric reservoirs||Characteristic properties. Water balance. Multi-reservoir systems. Multi-purpose reservoirs. Operation rules. Environmental constraints. Flood control.||3|
|6||Simulation and optimization of hydroelectric reservoirs||Hydrological uncertainty and its impacts to hydropower design. Hydrological design of reservoirs. Simulation and optimization techniques for hydroelectric reservoirs. Estimation of firm and secondary energy.||3|
|7||Technology of small hydropower works||General layout of small hydropower plans. Main components (intake weirs, transfer channels, forebay tanks, penstocks). Specific environmental utilities (sediment stops, fish passages). Examples.||3|
|8||Design of small hydropower works||Hydrological design. Flow duration curves. Ecological flows. Simulation of small hydropower plan operation. Turbine selection. Optimization of energy production through combined turbines.||3|
|9||Solar energy||Solar radiation (direct, diffuse). Measurement of solar radiation. Estimation of solar energy potential. Estimation through indirect data (daylight hours, cloud data). Impact of topography. Allocation of solar panels. Legislation.||3|
|10||Wind energy||Theoretical and technically efficient wind potential. Wind power curves. Allocation of wind plant systems. Legislation. Environmental impacts and associated constraints.||3|
|11||Hybrid systems||The concept of pumped storage. Reversible turbines. Simulation of hybrid system operation.||3|
|12||Energy economics||Energy and hydroelectric energy management. Technical and economic quantities. Energy market.||3|
|13||Combined management of water and renewable energy||Conjunctive management of water and renewable energy Water as a means for energy production, consumption and storage. Conjunctive management of hydroelectric, wind and solar energy at large scale.||3|
By the completion of the course, the students will be able to:
|Teaching methods||Continuous flow of theoretical concepts and applications|
|Teaching media||Blackboard use and Powerpoint presentations|
|Computer and software use||Formulation and solution of advanced simulation and optimization problems in spreadsheets|
|Assignments (projects, reports)||Technical studies for four types of design problems, in groups of two or three students (optional assignments covering the respective subjects of the course): 1. Estimation of design characteristics of a hydropower plan 2. Simulation and optimization of hydropower operation 3. Hydrological and energy planning of a small hydropower plan 4. Simulation of operation of a hybrid energy system (solar, wind and hydroelectric)|
|Other||Visit at the Laboratory of Turbines of the School of Mechanical Engineering|
Full educational material, comprising lecture notes, problem solutions of previous exams (since 2015), as well as links to research publications and associated web sites, are available at the web site of the cource.
Papantonis, D. E., Small Hydroelectric Works, 456 p., Symeon Pubs., Athens, 2008 (in Greek).