Ελληνικά

Irrigation Engineering

Course Description:

Basic principles, design and operation of irrigation works. Irrigation water requirements, irrigation water delivery systems and crops irrigation methods, sources and quality of irrigation water and soil. Irrigation pumps, flow measurement devices, irrigation water management, environmental consequences, legislation of water resources availability.

Prerequisite Knowledge

Fluid mechanics, Applied Hydraulics, Engineering Hydrology

Course Units

# Title Description Hours
1 Introduction Basic principles and definitions. Historic evolution of irrigation studies and works. Pre-study of irrigation works and geotechnical/economic assessment.
2 Crops and irrigation Crop-soil-atmosphere relationships. Measurement of soil water capacity, useful soil water capacity, description of root zone systems - crop water uptake. Methods of computing reference crop evapotranspiration (physically and empirically based). Crop growth stages, crop coefficient and actual crop evapotranspiration. 3
3 Irrigation water requirements Methodology of estimating the gross irrigation water requirements and the irrigation scheduling (irrigation dose, time, frequency and efficiency) including water to combat soil salinity. 3
4 Design discharge of irrigation networks Design water supply of irrigation networks under the water distribution systems of continuous water supply, rotation and free demand (probability concept). 3
5 Surface irrigation methods Basic principles and computational methods for the design and operation of surface irrigation systems (flood irrigation, limited diffusion or furrows). Assessment of topsoil surface irrigation water flow characteristics. Assessment of computational methods of surface irrigation and water reuse from surface irrigation water losses. 6
6 Sprinkler irrigation systems Hydraulics, design and operation of sprinkler irrigation systems. Water distribution uniformity and types of sprinkler irrigation systems (e.g. portable, semiportable, permanent systems). Move-set and solid-set irrigation systems. Sprinkler system components (pumps, main and lateral lines, sprinklers) and performance characteristics. Hydraulic computations for the assessment of flow characteristics in pipes of individual and collective sprinkler irrigation networks. Specific sprinkler irrigation systems for environmental protection, and injection of fertilizers, chemical ingredients and fluid waste. 6
7 Local and trickle irrigation Methods of local irrigation: trickle, sub-surface irrigation, fountain and spraying irrigation. Irrigation system components (e.g. drippers, microjets: technology and hydraulics. Uniformity of irrigation water distribution. Irrigation layouts. Hydraulic calculations for the design and good operation of network pipes due to small design discharges. Control systems of hydraulic head for purely irrigation water and water mixed with chemicals and fertilizers. Pumps installations, cleaning filters, equipment of chemicals injection, flow and pressure meters, and automation equipments. Management and evaluation. 6
8 Pumps for crops irrigation systems Description of typical parameters and efficiency characteristics for two or more pumps operating in series or in parallel. Pump efficiency consequences from speed and diameter changing of an impeller. Pump efficiency curves and irrigation system required for determining the hydraulic head and operation discharge of one or more pumps. Criteria for selecting the most suitable pump or combination of pumps. 3
9 Advent and quality of irrigation water-environmental consequences Description of surface water sources for crop irrigation (rivers, lakes, central irrigation water distribution facilities, industrial and agricultural returns and urban waste), groundwater (subsurface aquifers) and irrigation wells. Suitability conditions and irrigation water quality criteria (e.g. salinity, toxicity, content of exchangeable sodium, biocides, carbonate anions, suspended materials). Classification systems according to the appropriateness. Supply rate of water resources and soil improvement. Environmental consequences and irrigation water legislation particularly for territorial waters and water appropriation. 3
10 Flow meters in irrigation systems Discharge measuring methods and devices in irrigation systems and open channels. Discharges and design of measuring devices in special applications (e.g. ultrasonic meters with or without application of Doppler phenomenon, Pitot pipelines, etc). 3
11 Στραγγίσεις και στραγγιστικά συστήματα Ορισμός, αναγκαιότητα και παράγοντες επηρεασμού της αποστράγγισης (στράγγισης). Στράγγιση από επιφάνεια εδάφους και ριζοστρώματος καλλιεργειών. Στράγγιση επιφανειακών νερών με δίκτυα τάφρων και στράγγιση ριζοστρώματος με υπόγειους κλειστούς στραγγιστικούς αγωγούς-δίκτυα υποστράγγισης. Σχεδιασμός δικτύων στράγγισης (διάταξη, μέγιστη παροχή, βάθος, ισαποχή, διαστασιολόγηση και τεχνικά έργα). Σχεδιασμός υπό συνθήκες σταθεράς ροής (μέθοδος ισοδύναμου βάθους) και ασταθούς ροής (εξίσωση Boussinesq και μέθοδος βαθμιαίας διαδοχής σταθερών καταστάσεων). Υδραυλικοί υπολογισμοί αγωγών στράγγισης (σωληνωτοί αγωγοί και στραγγιστικές τάφροι). Άντληση νερού στράγγισης (σχεδιασμός, λειτουργία και συντήρηση). Ανακούφιση υδροφόρου ορίζοντα ή αρτεσιανού φρέατος (σχεδιασμός, κατασκευή, λειτουργία, συντήρηση και διάθεση νερού). Οικονομικά, νομοθετικά και περιβαλλοντικά θέματα. Ροή επιστροφής και απομάκρυνση λυμάτων. 6

Learning Objectives

By the completion of the course, the students will be able to:

  • Understand the crop-soil-atmosphere relationship;

  • Estimate the crop evapotranspiration using empirical and physically based methods;

  • Compute the water irrigation requirements, specific discharge, dose, frequency and duration of irrigation applications;

  • Design the discharges of irrigation networks according to delivery systems of irrigation water;

  • Apply the irrigation methods: surface, sprinkle and local (trickle irrigation);

  • Design the irrigation networks;

  • Understand the origin and quality of irrigation water and soil, as well as the suitability criteria of their use;

  • Understand and design the functionality of irrigation pumps;

  • Understand water measuring devices and their operation in irrigation systems

  • Manage the irrigation water and environmental consequences coming from irrigation works;

Teaching Methods

Teaching methods Continuous flow of theoretical concepts and applications
Teaching media Blackboard use and Power point presentations
Computer and software use The students solve exercises in the classroom using EXCEL sheets in computers.
Problems - Applications 10-12 problems are discussed and solved in class
Assignments (projects, reports) The students deal with original themes in groups of 2-4 persons. They publish them in Conferences or Journals.
Student presentations Optional

Student Assessment

  • Final written exam: 70%
  • Assignments (projects, reports): 30%

Textbooks - Bibliography

  1. Finkel, H.J. (2009). Handbook of Irrigation Technology. Taylor & Francis Inc. pp 384. ISBN: 0849332311.
  2. James, G.L. (1988). Principles of Farm Irrigation System Design. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Canada.
  3. Jensen, M. E. (1983). Design and Operation of Farm Irrigation Systems, Hand book, 2nd Edition (revised). Published by The American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Michigan USA.
  4. Lascano R.J. and Sojka R.E. (Eds) (2007). Irrigation of Agricultural Crops. American Society of Agronomy. pp 664. ISBN: 0891181628.
  5. Adrian,Laycock, 2007. Irrigation Systems, Design, Planning and Construction. CABI Publishing. Αριθμός σελίδων: 285. ISBN: 1845932633.
  6. Panagoulia D. and Dimou G. (2000). Introduction in Land Reclamation Works, 3rd Edition, 444 pages. National Technical University. Athens. In Greek.
  7. Terzidis G. (1997). Agricultural Hydraulics. Ed: Ziti. 501 pages. ISBN: 9604314041. In Greek.
  8. Tsakiris G. (2006). Hydraulic Works, Design and Management Volume II: Land Reclamation Works. Eds: Simmetria. 776 pages. ISBN: 9602661712.
  9. Valeria De Laurentiis, Dexter V.L. Hunt and Christopher D.F. Rogers (2016). Overcoming Food Security Challenges within an Energy/Water/Food Nexus (EWFN) Approach. Review-Sustainability 8(1), 95; doi:10.3390/su8010095.

Lecture Time - Place:

  • Tuesday, 09:45 – 12:30,
    Rooms:
    • Κτ. Διοίκησης, PC Lab Σχολής