# Computer Aided Design of Civil Engineering Projects

## Course Description:

Computer Aided Design (CAD) of architectural, structural, hydraulic, transportation and other engineering projects. Elements - linear segments, polylines, circles, etc. Element attributes, layer, color etc. Editing - erase, copy, rotate, etc. Drafting aids - object snap, grid, rays. Subdrawings - blocks, references. Plotting drawings. Spreadsheets (Excel), application to CAD (clothoid, catenary curves etc). Introduction to the Regulation of the Energy Performance of Buildings (KENAK) - computation using spreadsheets. 3D CAD using solid objects.

### Prerequisite Knowledge

Technical Drawing

### Course Units

# Title Description Hours
2 Autocad statements, coordinates Introduction to Autocad statements - using keyboard, menus or icons. Creating new drawings - acadiso template. Line. Cartesian, relative Cartesian, polar, relative polar coordinates. Exercise: drawing rectangles with absolute and relative coordinates. 3Χ1=3
3 Elements, editing 1 ARC (center/radius/angles, 2points/radius, 3points). TEXT (single/multi), text style, effects. POINT, point style. Save files named as draw01, draw02, draw03 (multiple copies so that we can revert to earlier versions). New - acadiso. Copy/paste/paste to original coordinates. Editing statements. ERASE, UNDO/REDO, add, remove and combinations. MOVE, COPY, ROTATE, SCALE. 3Χ1=3
4 Editing 2, object snap points, inquire statements 2nd editing statements. Statements break, trim, extend. Statements fillet (with intersecting and non-intersecting lines), chamfer, offset (differentiation between line/polyline). Statement array (rectangular). Mirror, lengthen (4 options), stretch, stretch with handles. Description of object snap points, end, mid, cen etc. List statement. Element selection and properties with right click. Statements dist, area. Units statement. 3Χ1=3
5 Three-dimensional CAD with solid objects Three dimensions. Axes. Box, cylinder, cone, wedge, torus. Views: top, front, side view. Isometric views. Shading. Editing statements move, copy, erase, scale, rotate in 3-dimensional elements. The object snap points in 3-dimensional elements. Example of 3D design of a temple. Using colors to achieve better optical result. 3Χ1=3
6 Union, subtraction, intersection of solid objects 3D editing statements. Union, subtract, intersect. Rotate3d, Mirror3d, Array3d, slice. Example of stair-case (wedge, box, union). Example of wall opening (box, subtract, box with greater thickness). 3Χ1=3
7 Solid object creation from cross sections Solids created by extruding cross sections (plane closed lines). Variable cross section along the z-axis (similarity transformation). Solids of constant cross section along curved axis. Extrude with non-zero angle with respect to vertical axis, positive and negative. Example with extrusion of Pi shaped cross section: curved bridge. 3Χ1=3
8 Solid object creation from revolving cross sections Solids created by revolving cross sections. Rectangle to cylinder. Closed polylines to flywheel. Revolving axis outside a polyline to a ring. Narrow closed polyline to shell. Shell fragments with revolving angle < 360 degrees. Example with 90 degrees pipe, and detailed union of pipes. 3Χ1=3
9 Photo-realism Shading. Photo-realism. Surface textures. Material library. Editing and creating new textures. Covering solids with textures. 3Χ1=3
10 Spreadsheets, scripts Spreadsheets - descriptions, operations, smart copy. Formatting. Example with computation of catenary and clothoid curves. Execution of Autocad statements via scripts. Drawing circles, lines (pline with a blank row at the end). Script creation from spreadsheets. Example with drawing of catenary and clothoid curves. 3Χ1=3
11 Introduction to KENAK Introduction to the Regulation of the Energy Performance of Buildings (KENAK). Concept of thermal transmittance. Thermal insulating materials. Maximal admissible thermal transmittance per climatic zone. Calculation of weighted average thermal transmittance of a building, and calculation of the maximal admission average transmittance. Examples. Computations using spreadsheets.
12 Coefficient of thermal conductivity Coefficient of thermal conductivity / thermal resistance. Thermal conductivity/resistance of materials. Calculation of equivalent thermal transmittance of multi-layer element. Calculation of the necessary thickness of an insulating element. Equivalent thermal resistance of boundary layers, gaps and roofs. Examples using spreadsheets. 3Χ1=3
13 Thermal bridges Heat loss due to linear and point thermal bridges. Linear thermal transmittance. Effect on the weighted average thermal transmittance of a building. Horizontal, vertical thermal bridges and thermal bridges of openings. Full example using spreadsheets and Autocad. Use of specialized software. Calculation of equivalent thermal transmittance of openings. Example using spreadsheets. 3Χ1=3

### Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of the course, students will be able to:

1. create drawings of civil engineering projects,
2. realize the value of computers to civil engineering,
3. understand each technical project in its entirety,
4. structure 3d models of civil engineering projects,
5. compute the thermal performance of buildings according to KENAK

### Teaching Methods

 Teaching methods Class lectures and workshops. Theory - Applications and Exercises, teaching using slides, from a tutor for each group. Yes. This is a laboratory course. The entire course takes place in a computer lab where each student makes drawings Yes (AutoCAD package) Yes Yes Yes

### Student Assessment

• Final written exam: 50%
• Assignments (projects, reports): 40%
• Problems - Applications: 10%

### Textbooks - Bibliography

1. Engineering graphics with AutoCAD 2015 (in Greek, also available in English), Authors: James D. Bethune, ISBN: 978-960-512-689-6, Type: book, Publisher: M. Giurdas Publications, 2015.
2. 2d & 3d drawings in AutoCAD (in Greek), Authors: C. Gousis, I. Tzouvadakis, ISBN: 978-960-266-19-32, Type: book, Publisher: Simmetria Publications, 2008.
3. AutoCAD 2000i - USER'S GUIDE (in English), Authors: Autodesk, ISBN: 00120-010000-5011, Type: book, Publisher: Autodesk, 2000.
4. Introduction to AutoCAD (in Greek), Authors: A.A. Stamos, K. S. Hatzilyberis, D. Vassilaki, Type: printed notes, Publisher: Academic Publications of NTUA, 2008, (also available at (http://mycourses.ntua.gr/courses/CIVIL1068/document/SHMEIOSEIS/ACAD_SHMEIOSEIS01.pdf).
5. Thancad: a 2dimensional cad for engineers (in English), Authors: A.A. Stamos, Type: electronic article - pdf, Publisher: Proceedings of Europython 2007 conference, Vilnius, Lithuania, 2007 (also available at http://thancad.sourceforge.net/thancad10.pdf).
6. Technical directive of TCG (TEE): Thermophysical properties of building elements and control of thermal insulation of buildings (in Greek), Authors: Androutsopoulos A. et al, Type: electronic book - pdf, Publisher: T.E.E., 2010.
7. Notes on building technology, Chapter C - Computation and control of thermal insulation (in Greek), Authors A.A. Stamos et al, Type: book, Publisher: Academic Publications of NTUA, 2016.

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